Stores are open, but they are empty. Storekeepers aimlessly meander, worrying about inventory becoming stale and workers being laid off. The prices of cellphones, cars, and medicine have nearly doubled. The cause of these misfortunes in the lives of Iranians is Donald Trump’s decision to withdraw from the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA).

In May, the administration backed out of the JCPOA, an agreement signed three years earlier that imposed restrictions on Iran’s civilian nuclear enrichment program. This detrimental reversion has reinstated the sanctions on Iran. The ripples of doing so will destabilize the Iranian market, pressuring Iran to expand its nuclear program in the absence of international monitoring to stop it.

Trump’s withdrawal from the JCPOA reinstates two sets of sanctions. The first limits Iranians’ access to US dollars, banknotes, gold, and other precious metals. It also imposes penalties on companies for selling auto parts and even commercial planes to Iran. The second set of sanctions restricts sales of Iran’s oil, which accounts for one-fifth of its economy.

U.S. sanctions undermine the momentum Iran had gained after the signing of the nuclear agreement. This developing country had been described as the “Germany of the Middle East”: a major market with more than 80 million consumers, a highly-educated population, and an array of natural resources. One signature reinstating sanctions nullifies Iran’s efforts to take advantage of its assets.

Although the sanctions targeting Iran’s oil has attracted the most attention, the first set of sanctions is hitting Iran’s vulnerable economy harder than anticipated. As a result of Trump’s decision to withdraw, Iran saw a collapse of its currency, the rial, leading to a rise in unemployment. Additionally, due to the cost of imported goods, inflation continues to increase. According to the official rate, one U.S. dollar is set to 42,000 Iranian rials. Following sanctions, one U.S. dollar has become equivalent to 120,000 rials. With years of on-again, off-again sanctions, these setbacks are only the beginning of the economic turbulence ahead.

Another pressing consequence is the strained relationship between Iran and the U.S. and the status of Iran’s nuclear program. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo has laid out rules by which Iran must abide to ease sanctions. Nonetheless, Iran will no longer receive any economic relief, and pressure will continue to increase, prompting a rise in its nuclear activities. “The United States could face the dilemma the JCPOA was designed to avoid: allow the [nuclear] program to continue to expand,” warns Council of Foreign Relations Senior Fellow Philip H. Gordon. The agreement was the best chance at slowing down, and ultimately ending, Iran’s nuclear ambitions. But, once again, Trump has jeopardized global safety and stability.